Powershell file operations

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SharePoint Basic File Operations Using PnP PowerShell

The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Please refer to my first code in PS, below: I created a Test. But, the result tried to terrify me with a number of horrible error messages. As a matter of fact, none of the above lines of code was error-free. Learn more. Basic File Operations Ask Question.

Asked 7 years, 3 months ago. Active 7 years, 3 months ago. Viewed times. Please bear with a toddler in PS, and help me to make it a great success Raabi Anony Raabi Anony 25 2 2 silver badges 8 8 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Thanks Christian. Why not use join-path for the exe, too?

Jan 10 '13 at I believe it is generally considered back practice to manually concatenate file paths. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name.

Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. Featured on Meta. Community and Moderator guidelines for escalating issues via new response…. Feedback on Q2 Community Roadmap. Technical site integration observational experiment live on Stack Overflow. Dark Mode Beta - help us root out low-contrast and un-converted bits. Related 4. Hot Network Questions. Question feed. Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled.When it comes to running commands on Windows, PowerShell has become somewhat of an ace in the hole.

For years enthusiasts were limited to the confines of the Windows command line but inPowerShell emerged as a powerful alternative. PowerShell is an interactive Command-Line Interface CLI and automation engine designed by Microsoft to help design system configurations and automate administrative tasks. This tool has its own command-line with a unique programming language similar to Perl. Today PowerShell offers users an extensive environment where they can execute and automate system management tasks.

The user can access resources from Active Directory to Exchange Server through one program. At its core, PowerShell allows the user to access:. As PowerShell has become an open-source application, Linux and Unix-based users can now access this versatile platform.

Rather than performing tedious and repetitive tasks, the user can simply create scripts and issue commands, and PowerShell will complete them automatically. The user can customize hundreds of commands, called cmdlets. Click on the image below to open the PDF in a separate browser tab that you can save and use as a quick reference. PowerShell is ideal for corporate administrators who run complex management operations over large corporate networks.

Rather than collating information about hundreds of different servers and services manually which would take a long timeyou can simply run a script on PowerShell to automatically feed information back to you. Generally speaking, PowerShell is most beneficial to users who have prior experience with command lines. To use PowerShell, you can run a variety of cmdlets, scripts, executables, and.

NET classes. Udemy has a number of top-rated courses on PowerShell that you might find useful. For many users, PowerShell is a better alternative to Command Prompt. The reason is that it simply has more horsepower.

powershell file operations

One of the biggest differences is that PowerShell uses cmdlets rather than commands. Cmdlets place registry management and Windows Management Instrumentation within the administrative reach of users. In contrast, Command Prompt is confined to much more simple commands. However, these are known as aliases rather than cmdlets. Another key difference is that PowerShell is centered on objects.

Every piece of data output from a cmdlet is an object rather than text. This makes it easier for the user to navigate their way around complex data. The inclusion of the. NET framework also enables PowerShell scripts to use. NET interfaces. In short, PowerShell is Command Prompt on steroids. Before we delve into the basics of using PowerShell, you first need to access the main interface.

If you are a Windows 10 user then you will already have access to PowerShell 5.This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads.

By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. Learn more. Office Office Exchange Server. Not an IT pro? We are retiring the TechNet Gallery. Make sure to back up your code.

Script Center. Sign in. United States English. Scripting Techniques. IO and Get-Location. Try Out the Latest Microsoft Technology.

My contributions. We will look at some of these in detail. Get-Location is just the beginning. You also need to know how to parse all that information. Then concatinate multiple parts of a filename and path to make usera.

Favorites Add to favorites. Category Scripting Techniques. Sub category Writing Scripts. License MIT.In this tip, we'll be looking at extracting file information with PowerShell along with useful logic for getting information, which can be useful in ETL contexts with file imports, data migrations with files, and reporting.

Files provide information that we may use with business logic to either validate prior to using or to confirm following the creation after we migrate information to them.

In addition, we'll see that we can use methods with these file objects that we create for copying or writing data without needing to create new object contexts - which can be convenient if we have multiple steps for a file.

If we are migrating data to a file, we want to first check if the file exists because we may migrate data to a file that does exist, or create a file and then migrate data. Also, since an application that extracts our file information may use date and time meta-information, we have to be careful about the create and modified times.

If we want to create a new file because the application looks for recent files created, we want to delete and re-create the file. However, if the application looks for a recent modified date, we may be able to re-use the same file - deleting all data in the file and adding data.

The quickest route is to remove the file and re-create as this will update both the creation and modified time information. In our first example, both of these files shouldn't exist, so we'll create them if they don't exist and we output their creation and modified times in PowerShell ISE the date and times of when you run this will differ.

We can get further information about our file with PowerShell, which can assist us with meta-information about the file which we may need to use. Some of the properties that we return in the below code block are:. We should note here that in some cases, we can update the properties of files if we have permissions. For example, in the below code, we first get the property of IsReadOnly which is Falsethen set it to true, then get the property again which is now True.

After we update the property, let's edit the file and add a sentence to the textcreate1. If we try to overwrite the file second image belowwe get an error. We should keep this in mind: if we can update some properties, with appropriate access, others can as well. Properties like IsReadOnly can be useful if we want to give people access to read and only access to read without updating. The principle of least permissions applies here: only give the access that's absolutely required.

We can also run methods on our files to perform operations on the file that we require - popular methods being writing to files, copying a file, or even removing a file. With some of the below methods, we use the properties we recently extracted to see how these can be used dynamically along with how we can extract properties in one line without necessarily creating an object if this step is not needed. In our textcreate1 file, let's add two lines of text - "First line" and "Second line" to test adding text to a new line.

We'll also create a path in our folder called "addedpath" that we'll use in this and the next step. We'll first remove our initial file if it exists, then use Invoke-Sqlcmd to save table information to a file, and from there create an object from Get-ChildItem.

With this object, we'll copy our file to our added path, set the file to read only, then check the file's length and if it meets the criteria, turn off read-only, and write the output that the file is ready for import.

The account that's executing the SQL Server Job Agent step has appropriate permissions to the file path and this will be required in order for the above step to complete. Since we have multiple steps for our file, we want to re-use the object as much as possible to save data to it, copy it to a path, set it to read-only, then validate the file, and further update it.

These properties and methods allow us to use multiple steps, if they're required in our design without needing to rebuild or re-declare everything in each line. Post a comment or let the author know this tip helped. All comments are reviewed, so stay on subject or we may delete your comment.

Note: your email address is not published.It was an entirely Command Line based operating system that was small enough to fit onto a floppy disk. Think about that one for a moment… DOS was a command line operating system that was specifically designed for performing disk related functions after all, disk was in the name. With DOS, it was possible to locate files based on various criteria, but you had to know what command to use. So what this really means is that even though PowerShell is only about ten years old, it contains commands that are left over from the s.

The bad news is that some of these commands are pretty archaic and can be tedious to use. The good news is that for the most part, those commands exist only for backward compatibility purposes. Let me give you a really simple example. There were lots of variations to the DIR command.

powershell file operations

In any case, DIR was the basic command used for displaying folder contents or for searching for specific files. That cmdlet is Get-ChildItem. You can see both commands being used in the image below. Of course this begs the question of why PowerShell contains two commands that do the same thing. In the world of PowerShell, each cmdlet follows a very specific format. Cmdlets are made up of a verb and a noun. This syntax helps to make PowerShell cmdlets a bit more intuitive, and it is really nice that the entire native cmdlet set adheres to a rigid structure.

The introduction of PowerShell cmdlets as a replacement for the old DOS commands has also allowed for a degree of modernization.

Microsoft is able to integrate functionality into the PowerShell cmdlets that simply did not exist in the days of DOS. So with that being the case, I thought that it might be fun to show you some of the things that you can do by using the Get-ChildItem cmdlet.

In the previous example, I entered the Get-ChildItem cmdlet without any command line switches, which caused PowerShell to display the contents of the current folder. But what if you wanted to take a look at a different folder? However, the Get-ChildItem cmdlet does not limit you to specifying a single path.

You have the option of examining multiple paths. Suppose for a moment that I want to examine the contents of the ISO folder and the Scripts folder on my server.

I could look at both folders in a single command. The command used for doing so would be:. PowerShell lets you examine two folders at once. There are three things that you will need to do in order to accomplish this. Second, you will have to filter the output based on file size. Third, you will need to put the output into some kind of easily readable format. The first of these tasks is really easy to accomplish. The Recurse switch tells PowerShell to display the contents of any folders that exist beneath the current folder.

For example, you might enter the command like this:. Instead, you will have to pipe the command output into the Where-Object cmdlet, and then use the Where-Object cmdlet to specify the target file size.

Such a command might look like this:.Saving data to files is a very common task when working with PowerShell. There may be more options than you realize. Test-Path is one of the more well known commands when you start working with files. It allows you to test for a folder or a file before you try to use it. Split-Path will take a full path to a file and gives you the parent folder path. If you need the file or folder at the end of the path, you can use the -Leaf argument to get it.

Join-Path can join folder and file paths together. I use this anytime that I am joining locations that are stored in variables.

If your variables both have backslashes in them, it sorts that out too. Resolve-Path will give you the full path to a location. The important thing is that it will expand wildcard lookups for you. You will get an array of values if there are more than one matche. I commonly use this on any path value that I get as user input into my functions that accept multiple files.

I find it as an easy way to add wildcard support to parameters.

powershell file operations

Now that we have all those helper CmdLets out of the way, we can talk about the options we have for saving and reading data. I do this to keep the samples cleaner and it better reflects how you would use them in a script. PowerShell was introduced with Out-File as the way to save data to files. Here is what the help on that looks like. Here is a sample of how to use it. It is a basic command and we have had it for a long time. Here is a second example that shows some of the limitations.

You can see that the last column of values are cut short. Out-File is processing objects for the console but redirects the output to a file. All the issues you have getting something to format in the console will show up in your output file. The good news is that we have lots of other options for this that I will cover below. There is also a Get-Content command that goes with them to read file data. Add-Content will create and append to files. Set-Content will create and overwrite files.

These are good all-purpose commands as long as performance is no a critical factor in your script.Navigating through Windows PowerShell drives and manipulating the items on them is similar to manipulating files and folders on Windows physical disk drives. This section discusses how to deal with specific file and folder manipulation tasks using PowerShell. You can get all items directly within a folder by using Get-ChildItem. Add the optional Force parameter to display hidden or system items.

For example, this command displays the direct contents of Windows PowerShell Drive C which is the same as the Windows physical drive C :. The command lists only the directly contained items, much like using Cmd. In order to show contained items, you need to specify the -Recurse parameter as well. This can take an extremely long time to complete.

To list everything on the C drive:.

Working with CSV's in Windows Powershell

Get-ChildItem can filter items with its PathFilterIncludeand Exclude parameters, but those are typically based only on name. You can perform complex filtering based on other properties of items by using Where-Object. The following command finds all executables within the Program Files folder that were last modified after October 1, and which are neither smaller than 1 megabyte nor larger than 10 megabytes:. Copying is done with Copy-Item. If the destination file already exists, the copy attempt fails.

To overwrite a pre-existing destination, use the Force parameter:. Folder copying works the same way. You can also copy a selection of items. The following command copies all. You can still use other tools to perform file system copies.

powershell file operations

For example, you can use the Windows Script Host Scripting. Creating new items works the same on all Windows PowerShell providers. If a Windows PowerShell provider has more than one type of item—for example, the FileSystem Windows PowerShell provider distinguishes between directories and files—you need to specify the item type. You can remove contained items using Remove-Itembut you will be prompted to confirm the removal if the item contains anything else. If you do not want to be prompted for each contained item, specify the Recurse parameter:.

You can also map a local folder, using the New-PSDrive command. The following command creates a local drive P: rooted in the local Program Files directory, visible only from the PowerShell session:.

Working with Files and Folders

Just as with network drives, drives mapped within Windows PowerShell are immediately visible to the Windows PowerShell shell. In order to create a mapped drive visible from File Explorer, the parameter -Persist is needed. However, only remote paths can be used with Persist. One of the more common storage formats for text data is in a file with separate lines treated as distinct data elements. The Get-Content cmdlet can be used to read an entire file in one step, as shown here:.

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